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Advanced Biology

Fall Semester Examination Review





1.          In what respect is the cell the basic unit of life?


      It is the simplest structural and functional unit of life.


2.        Account for the fact that water is both a requirement and a product in photosynthesis.


Water is required to supply the hydrogen necessary for glucose formation.  Water is the product because some of the hydrogen combines with oxygen derived from CO2 in the dark reaction.


3.        Why is an energy transport system vital to a cell?


An energy transport system such as that of the ATP molecules is vital to a cell because energy must be drawn at any time and from any area of the cell.


4.        Compare and contrast, in at least ten (10) ways, mitosis and meiosis.


Mitosis   Meiosis

a. occurs in somatic cells  a. occurs in germ cells

b. 1 division yields 2 cells  b. 2 division yields 4 cells

c. sequential order  c. sequential order

d. diploid   d. monoploid (haploid)

e. asexual reproduction  e. sexual reproduction

f. cell division   f. reduction division

g. no tetrad formation  g. tetrad formation

h. little chance of crossing-over  h. good chance of crossing-over

i. most common method of cell division i. limited method of cell division

j. produces exact copies of the parent cell j. serves to recombine the genetic complement of

       the organism.


5.        It is said that, "Science done in secret is not science at all.”  Why is it so important that scientific results and conclusions be published, or at least somehow communicated to others; so important that, if it is not done, it is simply NOT science?


This relates to the repeatability in scientific research.  If research cannot be repeated by others, it is not acceptable, and work that is not publicly described cannot be repeated by others.


6.        One night a meteor shower is seen in your area.  Upon investigation, you find a meteorite; which you take home. After several days this object is still warm so you break it open and inside is found an "amorphous mass" that is warm to the touch and glows.  Tell me what procedures and criteria you would use to determine if this mass is alive or not by biological standards.


                        Criteria for Life                      Scientific Method

                        1) Structural organization      1) Identify the problem

                        2) Reproduction                     2) Research literature

                        3) Metabolism                        3) Hypothesis

                        4) Movement                          4) Controlled experimentation

                        5) Adaptability                        5) Analyze data

                                                                        6) Draw conclusions


7.        Explain the relationship between the form and function of body parts.


Generally, the body parts have evolved in a manner that allows more efficient performance of their functions.  An example would be the hollow chambers of the heart that are adapted to their function of pumping blood through the tubular blood vessels.


8.        Why does a person feel faint if he rises too quickly from a supine position on a hot day?


On a hot day, circulation to the skin is increased to promote heat loss from the body.  When we stand, circulation to the brain must be maintained despite the shift in gravitational pull.  The hunting of blood from the miles of capillaries in the skin to the vessels feeding the brain takes more time when the skin capillaries are wide open than when the skin contains less of the blood supply (as on a cold day).


9.        Which appear first, the blood vessels within an osteon, or the lamellae of bone matrix around the central canal?


The blood vessels determine the pattern for the development of the lamellae, so blood vessels in the osteon region appear first.


10.     The bony thorax doesn’t provide nearly as much protection for the heart as the cranium does for the brain.  However, its more open structure is advantageous.  How so?


The thoracic cage must maintain flexibility for breathing; for that, it must sacrifice the strong but rigid protection afforded by solid bone casing such as the cranium.


11.     Summarize photosynthesis. (You may use a diagram.)


Light                                                 ATP





                                         O2                    H2O


                  CO2          ATP


       RDP                                NADPH



                                   2 PGAL






12.     Why are the light-dependent reactions important to the Calvin cycle?


·         The light-dependent reactions provide the Calvin Cycle with ATP and NADPH.

·         The Calvin cycle uses the energy in ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.


13.     Summarize glycolysis and cellular respiration. (You may use a diagram.)



                             ATP     ATP    NAD

Glucose                                       2PGAL


Pyruvic acid


    CoA                             ATP     ATP


Acetyl-CoA                                    CO2






Electron Transport Chain


O2                                                                      H2O





14.     How are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation similar? How are they different?


·         Similar: both provide energy to cells in the absence of oxygen

·         Different: Alcoholic fermentation produces alcohol, carbon dioxide, and NADH+\

          Lactic acid fermentation produces lactic acid and NADH+



15.     Compare the energy flow in photosynthesis to the energy flow in cellular respiration.


·         The energy flows in photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place in opposite directions.

·         Photosynthesis is the process that save energy, while cellular respiration is the process that releases energy.


16.      the functions of the following types of tissues: (A) epithelial, (B) connective, (C) muscle, and (D) nervous.


(A) epithelial tissue.


·  Protection

·  Absorption

·  Filtration

·  Excretion

·  Secretion

(B) connective tissue


·  Binding

·  Support

·  Protection

·  Insulation

(D) Muscle tissue

·Responsible for most body movement

(E) Nervous tissue

·  Coordination

·  Integration


17.     Distinguish between isomers and isotopes.



18.     Distinguish between the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of a protein.


·        Primary - sequence of amino acids

·        Secondary  - consistent pattern taken by segments of the backbone of the polypeptide chain (e.g., alpha helix) [Support and stability]

·        Tertiary  - total three-dimensional configuration of the protein [solubility in water]

·        Quaternary – the organization of any subunits (usually held together noncovalently) [e.g., hemoglobin]


19.     Movements through cell membranes: (A) In what direction do the molecules of solute move in diffusion? (B) When does diffusion stop? (C) Describe facilitated diffusion. (D) How does osmosis differ from diffusion?


      (A) In what direction do the molecules of solute move in diffusion?


Molecules move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.


(B) When does diffusion stop?


When equilibrium is reached.


(C) Describe facilitated diffusion.


This is when special protein carrier molecules combine with molecules (i.e., glucose) and transport them through the cell membrane.


(D) How does osmosis differ from diffusion?


Osmosis is a special case of diffusion involving water and the cell membrane.



20.     Explain the relationship between monomers and polymers, using polysaccharides as an example.


·              Polymers are large macromolecules made up of smaller molecules called monomers.

·         For example, monomers called monosaccharides are joined together to form polymers called polysaccharides.