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AP BIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF LIFE

 

 

 

1.        Chapter 1 presents unifying themes of biology. Briefly describe each of these in your own words:

a. hierarchy of organization                                                                g. regulatory mechanisms

b. emergent properties                                                                        h. unity and diversity

c. cellular basis of life                                                                          i. evolution

d. heritable information                                                                       j. science as a process

e. correlation of structure and function                                            k. science and technology

f. interaction of organisms with their environment                         l. biology is multidisciplinary

2.        Copy on your notebook paper and fill in the chart below for the major subatomic particles of an atom.

Particle

Charge

Mass

Location

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.        Atoms can have various numbers associated with them.

a.        Define the following and show where each of them is placed relative to the symbol of an element such C: atomic number, mass number, and atomic weight.

b.       Define valance.

c.        Which of these four numbers is most related to the chemical behavior of an atom? Explain.

4.        Explain what is meant by saying that the sharing of electrons between atoms falls on a continuum from covalent bonds to ionic bonds.

5.        Copy on your notebook paper and fill in the table below that summarizes the properties of water that contribute to the fitness of the environment for life.

Property

Explanation of Property

Example of Benefit to Life

a.

Hydrogen bonds hold molecules together and adhere them to hydrophilic surfaces.

b.

High specific heat

c.

Temperature changes in environment and organisms are moderated.

d.

Hydrogen bonds must be broken for water to evaporate.

e.

f.

Water molecules with high kinetic energy evaporate; remaining molecules are cooler.

g.

Ice floats

h.

i.

j.

k.

Most chemical reactions in life involve solutes dissolved in water.

6.        To become proficient in the use of the concepts relating to pH, develop a concept map to organize your understanding of the following terms: pH, [H+], [OH-], acidic, basic, neutral, buffer, 1-14, acid-base pair. Remember to label connecting lines and add additional concepts as you need them.

7.        Construct a concept map that illustrates your understanding of the characteristics and significance of the three types of isomers.

8.        Copy on your notebook paper and fill in the following table on the functional groups.

Functional

Group

Molecular

Formula

Names and Characteristics of Organic

Compounds Containing Functional Groups

 

–OH

 

 

 

Aldehyde or ketone; polar group

Carboxyl

 

 

 

–NH2

 

 

 

Thiols; cross-links stabilize protein structure

Phosphate

 

 

 

9.        Describe the four structural levels in the conformation of a protein.

10.     Identify the type of monomer or group shown by these formulae. Then match the chemical formulae with their description. Answers may be used more than once.

  1. Molecules that would combine to form a fat
  2. Molecule that would be attached to other monomers by a peptide bond
  3. Molecules or groups that would combine to form a nucleotide
  4. Molecules that are carbohydrates
  5. Molecule that is a purine
  6. Monomer of a protein
  7. Groups that would be joined by phosodiester bonds