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1.       What are cohesion and adhesion? What roles do they play in the upward transport of water in a plant?

2.       Explain the mechanism governing the opening and closing of the stoma.

3.       Many low-growing plants secrete drops of water along the edges of their leaves. This phenomenon, called guttation, is particularly apt to occur during damp spring nights. Which of the forces by which water rises in the xylem do you think is responsible for guttation?  Why?

4.       An increase in light intensity greatly increases transpiration, even if there is no change in internal or external temperature. Why?

5.       Many leaves and herbaceous stems are fuzzy with tiny hairlike structures. List two ways this could decrease transpiration.

6.       Over-fertilizing some plants seems to affect the transpiration rate. What effect would you expect? Why?

7.       Trace the path taken by a hydrogen atom from the time it enters a root hair incorporated in a molecule of water until it is stored in the root cortex incorporated in a molecule of starch.

8.       What functions in the maple tree are carried out by roots?

9.       Why is it good practice to prune off some of the branches of a tree or shrub that has been transplanted.

10.   If in counting the annual rings of an ancient elm, several narrow rings are found just within several wide ones, what conclusions might you draw?

11.   What is the function of the upward transport of maple sap to the maple tree?

12.   Xylem and Phloem

a.    What are two similarities between the cells that make up xylem and those that makeup phloem?

b.    What is the major difference between these tissues?

13.   Highway construction often interferes with the natural drainage of water, causing water to accumulate in formerly well-drained woods. Soon dead trees can be seen in these areas. Explain.

14.   Seed germination:

a.       What three conditions are necessary for germination of seeds to occur?

b.       What two additional factors are sometimes necessary for the germination of seeds?

15.   Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

a.       The fusion of two gametes gives rise to the gametophyte generation.

b.       The prothallus is an independent, autotrophic plant.

c.       In flowering plants, the gametophyte is the dominant generation.

d.       Most of our grain crops are angiosperms.

e.       In tropical plants there is no need for plants to produce seeds since there is no winter (non-growing season).

16.   Imperfect Flowers

a.       What is an imperfect flower?

b.       If the imperfect flowers are on separate plants, the condition is called ___.

c.       The condition described in (b) above ensures what type of pollination?

The following represent typical life cycles for several kinds of plants. Fill in, where appropriate, the following letters or words: (N) or (2N), M itosis or M eiosis, [dependent] or [independent].


17.   Moss          Sporophyte        (a) (  )

                        (b) M ______

                        (c) [   ]

Spores              (d) (  )

Gametophyte     (e) (  )

                        (f) [    ]

                        (g) M _____

Eggs                 (h) (  )

Zygote              (i) (  )

Sperm               (j) (  )

18.   Fern            Sporophyte        (a) (  )

                        (b) M ______

                        (c) [   ]

Spores              (d) (  )

Prothallus          (e) (  )

Gametophyte     (f) (  )

                        (g) [    ]

                        (h) M _____

Eggs                 (i) (  )

Zygote              (j) (  )

Sperm               (k) (  )


19. Gymnosperm                       Sporophyte                    (a) (  )

                                    (b) [   ]

male cone                     (c) M _____

microspores                  (d) (  )

female cone                   (e) M _____

megaspores                  (f) (  )

male gametophyte         (g) (  )

                                    (h) [  ]

seed                             (i) (  )

(j) M _____

Zygote                          (k) (  )

Female gametophyte      (l) (  )

                                    (m) [  ]


20. Angiosperm             anther microspore mother cell     (a) (  )

                                                (b) M ______

Sporophyte                                (c) (  )

                                                (d) [  ]

                                                (e) M _____

pistil megaspore mother cell       (f) (  )

            (g) [    ]

male gametophyte                     (h) (  )

                                                (i) [  ]

generative cell                            (j) (  )

embryo                                     (k) (  )

zygote                                      (l) (  )

egg cell                                     (m) (  )

female gametophyte                   (n) (  )

                                                (o) [  ]